Resources on Avoiding Plagiarism
Department of Political Science
Concordia University

This web page is intended to be used as a basis for class presentations on avoiding plagiarism in the Political Science Department at Concordia University. Instructors are free to adapt the materials for their courses. The page was created by Michael Lipson. If you have suggestions for incorporation into this page, please send them to Professor Lipson at


I. Introduction: What is Plagiarism?    
II. Why Not to Plagiarize    
    A. What can happen if you get caught   
    B. Why it matters  
    C. Academic Code Procedures    
III. How Not to Plagiarize    
    A. Rules for Citing and Quoting Sources     
    B. Types and Examples of Plagiarism    
        1. Verbatim (Word-for-Word) Plagiarism
        2." Mosaic" Plagiarism and "Patchwriting"  
        3. The "Apt Phrase"    
        4. Pattern, Organization, or Structure of Arguments and Ideas   
        5. Multiple Submission and Self-Plagiarism
        6. Submitting Others' Work    
    C. Techniques for Avoiding Plagiarism    
IV. Bibliography and Resources    

The Plagiarism Pledge    

This web page is neither a legal document nor official university policy. Every effort has been taken to ensure that this page accurately reflects relevant University policies. However, in the event of any conflict between this web page and the Academic Code of Conduct or other official university policy, the University's official policies take priority.

Version 4.2 Updated January 2019
Version 4.1 Updated August 2016
Version 4.0 Updated and Revised February 2016
Version 3.0 Updated December 2013
Version 2.0 Revised August 2009

Version 1.0 2003